Other Articles & Papers:
Do black holes exist?
Many believe not only that black holes exist, but that they are a source of improbable wonders such as volumeless matter, time travel and worm holes to other universes. But common sense should instantly raise skepticism about such claims. In fact, Albert Einstein argued vigorously that black holes were incompatible with reality as described by his theories of relativity. He wrote a paper specifically on this topic in 1939.
Noblackholes.com supports Einstein's skepticism and explains why the conservation of energy (on which general relativity is based) does not allow for the formation of black holes. In a nutshell, black holes do not exist because there is an upper limitation on the gravitational energy that a mass (m) can produce. The upper limit is the energy equivalence of the mass (e=mc2). Because the gravitational energy required to create a black hole is greater than the equivalent energy of the mass, a black hole will never form. As the gravitational energy required to compact a mass approaches the energy equivalence of the mass, the ability of gravity to further compact the mass will be diminished by the relativistic effects of gravity on time and space.
For example, every observer of a collapsing star will observe
that the star will stop collapsing before crossing a critical radius
and becoming a black hole. However, an observer's perception of
the passage of time can vary significantly depending of the strength of
the gravity field from which observations are made. From the
perspective of a distant observer, the rate of collapse will slow down
so much as the surface approaches the critical radius that the critical
radius will never be crossed in finite time. Over eons of
time, the star will eventually disintegrate without the surface ever
crossing the critical radius. From the perspective of an
observer on the surface of the collapsing star, as the surface quickly
approaches the critical radius, the star will instanteously
disintegrate before the critical radius can be reached. For a
explanation of this, see the conceptual paper: The
time barrier that prevents formation of black holes.
This website contains a series of conceptual papers that describe, without the use of equations, why through the lens of general relativity black holes can never form. Technical papers, including three peer reviewed physics journal articles, provide a more thorough description of the problems of black holes and particularly how black holes violate the principle of the conservation of energy that underlies Einstein's theories of relativity.
A brief history of black holes
Isaac Newton's seminal work on gravity, Principia (1687), postulates a law of gravity where gravitational potential energy outside a mass is inversely proportional to radial distance from the center of the mass. According to this law of gravity, the escape velocity on the surface of a mass increases as the mass is compacted. In 1783 the Reverend John Michell, a British natural philosopher, pointed out that if a mass could be compacted within a critical radius where the escape velocity on the surface of the mass equals the speed of light, light would not escape from the surface. This would create an invisible mass, now called a black hole....
The time barrier that prevents formation of black holes
As a mass is compacted to have a smaller and smaller radius, the escape velocity at the surface of the resulting sphere increases. If the sphere could be compacted to a critical radius (called the Schwarzschild radius) so that the escape velocity at the surface of the sphere is equal to the speed of light, nothing could escape from the gravity field. The result would be the formation of a black hole. However, the dilation of time that occurs with increasing gravity erects an impenetrable barrier at the Schwarzschild radius that is able to prevent any mass from compacting sufficiently to form a black hole...
Hawking radiation and black hole evaporation
Hawking radiation is named after physicist Stephen Hawking who in 1974 provided a theoretical argument for the existence of thermal radiation emitted by black holes. The existence of Hawking radiation, now commonly accepted among physicists, presents a very significant logical problem for those who additionally believe that gravity affects time and that light and matter can pass through the event horizon of a black hole. Specifically, in addition to completely evaporating a black hole before light or matter could reach the black hole’s event horizon, Hawking radiation, intensified by the acceleration of time, will destructively irradiate anything drawing near to the event horizon...
Pathological coordinates and special coordinates
If a time barrier prevents formation of black holes and if anything that approaches a very compact mass experiences instant evaporation, how can some still claim black holes form? One fallacy that has contributed to the mistaken belief that black holes form in Einstein's relativistic space time is the labelling of ordinary coordinates as "pathological" and the assertion that there exist "special" coordinates that can be used to show a mass will compact to form a black hole...